Kamis, 22 November 2012

Olahraga Disc Throw History

Disc Throw History

Based on historical remarks that discus throw athletics is one number, this can we learn from the book by Homer entitled "Odyssy" in ancient times.
In the book it tells Odyssy motion movements that are the foundation of athletic, running, jumping and throwing are known by primitive peoples in prehistoric times. It can even be said to be as old as man, motion-known movement.

They are doing the road, run, jump and throw solely in order to survive. Within this effort depends on their physical efiiensi. Those who are less skilled, less resistant walking, fast enough to run, jump or throw lubber would die of starvation or become prey to wild animals may even become victims of natural disasters.So since prehistoric times, man has realized the benefits of endurance running away, running speed, agility jumps and throws. So there are some people who think athletics is the oldest sport.

The Dutch called it the "Athletics is a moerder der sporten" which means Mother of all athletic sports. Though the basic movements of athletics has been known since the existence of man, but the athletics competitions including discus throwing remarks ever done in recent history occurred in ancient times around 1000 years BC. It can be seen from the books written by the Greek poet Homer.
In this book also tells the adventures of Odysseus Homer. That when Odysseus stranded on a island disebuah later was named Phaeacia, king named Alcinaus. After Odysseus brought before the king then held a festive reception. During the event held a series perlombaan.pemuda Phaeacia men who mempertujukan expertise in fast races, wrestling, jumping, boxing, and discus throwing.
After the series was completed, the king asked that Odysseus also write Aleinaus demotrasi discus throwing. Odysseus initially refuse with smooth, but the king urged the grounds that pumuda Phaeacia can see how to throw a perfect disc, then the king's request had met. Without undressing war made of metal, Odysseus got up to ask permission to the king, then go take the disc is the toughest arena and the sweetest style of throwing the disc, disc melucur and falls far short of that achieved distance athletes from Phaeacia (Sunaryo Basuki, 1979: 24).
From the excerpt of this book believe that the ancient Greeks had known athletics, here seen a number of running, jumping, and throwing discs which are the numbers of athletics as we know it until now.
B. Disc Throw History in Indonesia
Talk about throwing a disc in Indonesia, we can separate them with tidaik athletic history. Because of discus throwing is a number or a part of athletics. So in Indonesia athletics including discus throwing is known by people who half a century Dutch colonized Indonesia Affairs. However, athletics including discus throwing is not widely known.
Then in the early days of the Japanese occupation started in 1942-1945 keolahragawan activity develops. This can be seen in the morning all students and employees are required to do gymnastics. Moreover given lessons martial arts and athletics including discus throwing. But all the physical activities performed by the people of Indonesia that is only for the sake of the Japanese people themselves, in an effort to win the war (Drs. Aip Syrifuddin, 1998: 3).
Then after Indonesia became independent development of sports including discus throwing even more widespread every person is given the opportunity to perform athletic exercises, including throwing discs (Drs. Sunaryo Basuki, 1979: 37).
From the above explanation of the history of athletics, so in this chapter the author will elaborate on the following matters:

    Long sleeve
    Throw the disc
    Effect of length l, ith the discus throwing performance

C. Long ArmLong sleeve is one of the factors to be considered in the particular sport discus throwing, because the length of the arm will enable the achievement of the maximum. This is consistent with the proposition that the shape of the body or body posture is one of the decisive factors in achieving maximum performance (HP Soeharno 1985: 8).
Besides the length of the arm, can also be influenced by several factors, such as strength. This is consistent with the notion that arm strength is the ability of the muscles of the arm to be able to overcome the resistance or load in the running activity (Drs. Soeharno HP 1985: 224),
Standards used to measure the length of the arm using a steel tape measure (Antropometer) measured through the base of the shoulder joint to the tip of the middle finger. This is consistent with the notion that the arm is the upper limb from the shoulder to the fingertips bracelet (Soedarminta, 1994: 108).
Based on the above opinion, the measurement results can be read in accordance with what is indicated on the gauge. Students who have a long arm above average it is considered as long-sleeved students, while students who have a long-arm below-average students to be considered as a short-sleeved.
For sports especially athletics discus throwing numbers, if any seseoarang has long sleeves trend will affect the throw away if they are supported by good muscle strength when compared to someone who has short sleeves.
D. Throw DiscsThere are some things about throwing a disc that will be described as follows:

    Pengetian discus throwing
    Discus throwing techniques
    Regulations in discus throwing

1. Definition of discus throwingTo memahmi understanding discus throwing, we first understand pemgertian discus throwing. Throw is a sport by throwing (javelin, bullets, hammer, discus). (WJS Poerwadarminta, 1976: 584).While a disc-shaped object timber-framed plate iron belt (Didi Sugandi, 1986: 51).So the discus throwing is one of a number of athletic competition in the use of a plate-shaped wooden object belted iron, or other materials that are thrown flat round.

2. Discus throwing techniquesa. How to hold the discTo make it easier to hold, the disc is placed in the palm of the left hand (for right-handed pitcher) while the right palm placed over the center of the disc, the fourth finger is rather sparse (open) cover disc rim (the last knuckles cover disc) whereas thumb free.b. There are two styles in discus throwing• Style sideAttitude starters stand tilted / sideways toward the target, will shortly start spinning right arm swung far to the rear, spin axis on the left foot (front foot or tip) for rotating his right arm was always in the back, throw the body in the position right arm lowered behind view toward the target, after the disc off of the hands of the right foot stepping forward left foot rests dibekas who had now swung back.• Style rearFirst attitude toward my back to throw just going around the right arm swung far to the rear sight will begin to look to the left, when I started spinning end as the axis of the left foot and the left foot was also repulsion bodies hurtling toward the throw, the right foot quickly swung around to the left to stand, momentarily landing left foot right foot and quickly diayum left to stand there and throwing attitude after the disc out of hand quickly swung his right foot forward and left foot swung back.

 3. Regulations in discus throwingThrow the disc should begin with a balanced stance with the throwing circle without stepping on the circle line. Thrower should not leave the throwing circle before the judge says legal standing position through a semi-circular section dalam.pelempar not touch the inner wall of the beam pitch limit but should not touch the top. The throw will be measured with a throw that pulled from a nearby former disc ketepi fall within the beam. If a participant is more than 8 persons, the participants will be given the right to throw 3 times, then it will be determined 8 thrower best to follow the next round (final). When the contestants 8 people or less, throw opportunities as much as 6 times straight final.
Pitch circle is made of iron, steel or other suitable material. The top mounted flat on the ground outside it. The inside is made of cement, asphalt or other materials that are solid but not slick inner surface must be flat lower 14 mm to 26 mm from the top edge of the circle.The size of the inner diameter of the throwing circle is 2.5 m, thickness 6 mm iron throwing circle and be painted white. 5 cm wide white line must be drawn from the top of the circle 75 cm long iron on both sides of the circle.
4. Fakor Factors affecting performance in discus throwinga. Internal factors or from within the athlete1. Physical health and mental wellWe as human beings are composed of physical and spiritual elements, both play an important role and can not be separated from each other because of mutual influence. If physically disrupted by a disease then fsikispun factors involved subject. Therefore, physical health should always be kept in good health.
Thus psychological factors, maintenance can be done by way of maintenance of a healthy atmosphere that keep a clear mind, and feelings of peace, and so on, to determine for all activities preformance achievement requires significant funding.b. External factors (of the athlete)1. Family environmentFamilies can be expressed as a group or the smallest unit of society in which there is a close relationship between its members. Parents educate their children in a family by nature to give encouragement.2. ExerciseExercise is a process of preparing the organism for athletes to systematically achieve quality, maximum performance with a given physical training and mental burden of regular, purposeful, increased and repetitive (Rush Nursalam, 1990: 19).
Training guidelinesBasically there is no difference in training needs for the pitcher, if there is a difference only in the technical training conducted (Sugito, 1994: 232).Broadly speaking, in addition to the need to improve their training techniques selected number of the pitcher throwing the exercises require the following:1. Strength trainingThrower who wants to succeed must develop the strength of his muscles with weight training or weight training. The principles of weight training is the willingness to repeat what is learned. Dilang movement repeatedly and eventually the movements can be done without thinking, everything is already in progress automatically, quickly and efficiently. Exercise should be heavy enough so that it can stimulate adaptations in the body. Light exercise will not lead to advances in capability and vice versa. These exercises should be improved, the exercise must be regular. Ultimately limited by the ability of this achievement is stored in the child's talent (Bambang Wijanarko, 1994: 113).In choosing the kinds of exercises should be adapted to the number of throwing that followed, during the preparation of the second phase can be done 2 times a week, and during the race can still be done once a week.2. Exercise speedsA pitcher must not only powerful, but also capable of moving quickly. For pitchers, the speed will give you explosive power is very useful to improve throwing performance. Exercise speeds for the thrower can be: run 30 yards, jump strapping, hopscotch 3 times and pul-ups.3. Endurance exerciseA pitcher must also have endurance. This can be achieved by training and running country gross interval.4. Agility drills and skillsA pitcher must also have the agility and skill. This can be achieved by exercises: gymnastics floor and gymnastic agility, jump rope (rope skiping).

E. Effect of long arm of the discus throwing performance
Influence on achievement throwing arm is generally very large, in terms of arm function as a buffer, a tool holder and a last throw with resiliency. This throws arm function in accordance with the opinion that the arm muscle is muscle strength or muscle group to overcome a burden in carrying out an activity (Abdul Hamid Nur Syeeh, 1993: 135).
The higher the discus thrower and large, the better it is. Thrower with long sleeves would be more profitable than short-sleeved. For a long arm swing has a range of more distant (Winarno Surachman, 1992: 20). Show that the evidence of the truth of the above opinion. It is therefore particularly sports coaches discus thrower would need to pay attention to posture or body shape is one factor in achieving maximum preastasi (Soeharno HP, 1985
A person who has a higher body and obviously has a great range further than having a short body, which in turn will not be able to throw further.


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